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Structural Critical Typical seismic Other possible Passive control
Typology equipment observed damages dameges techniques
Slim vessels Columns Leakage of fluid in flanged joints Overtuning Dissipative coupling
  Reactors Yielding of anchor bars    
Above- Ground squat Equipment Big broad tanks with fixed and floating roof Failure of wall- bottom plate welding Elephant foot buckling Uplifting Base isolation
    Diamond buckling of tank wall Settlements of ground Impact of floating roof to tank wall. Overtopping dissipative spacers between roof and wall,TMD
Squat Equipment placed on short columns Spherical tanks Collapse of structure due to shear failure of columns   Dissipative bracings Base isolation Dissipative coupling
  Process Furnaces Collapse of structure due to shear failure of columns Collapse of the Chimney Detachment of internal pipes Detachment of the internal refractory material Lakage from pipes; Increase of temperature of Furnace wall Base isolation pipes; Dissipative bracings TMD
  Cryogenic tanks Collapse of structure due to shear failure of columns   Base isolation
Piping systems and Steel or R.C. frames Collapse for excessive stresses Damages to supported Dissipative bracing Dissipative coupling
support     equippment     
structure       (pipes,tanks,…)                  TMD (using the same supported equipment )

Table 2. Seismic damages of industrial process components and passive control systems.


Finally supporting frames can be effectively protected by several control techniques.

For example, to reduce forces and displacements, dissipative bracings and dissipative coupling techniques can be profitably used, as for the slim vessels. To avoid damage in the supported equipment (compressors, pumps, tanks, etc..), the TMD technique can also be adopted. In this case, it is possible to reduce the stress level in the frame and contemporarily to protect


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