Explosion waves
Shock-like stress point,or explosion
waves of fire.

Fig. 6 a pressure curve during the passage of a blast wave.

**SCHOCH-LIKE STRESS**

Pressure wave load 1500 KN TNT.

Speed o pressure wave 380 m/sec.

Das maximum pressure curve of 85 J'o yield strength of gigging in the tank shell and provides a sufficient stability is washed.

Prior to the launching forces is a sufficiently robust to accommodate the shell storage Horisontal significant.

Fig.6 bPressure over time in relation to pulse as time runs on spherical tank.

The spherical tank surface integrated pressure over time or momentum over time (3 ).With
respect to the Reponse of a building on the pressure wave,the dynamic vibration
characteristics of the construction and in particular the period of the lowest natural
frequency.

Pulse velocity is:

Spherical Tank response smaller than resulting from the momentum Shock acceleration. ln
the other case, i.e.for T1<t r the reponse value even up to about 1.7 times the value the
shock acceleration increases. ln practice,it can beassumed thatat T 1>0.2 s the response
value is smaller than the shock acceleration.

The vessel was shown in Figure 7 by incorporation of Mechanical springs from the effects of
deep tremors matched. A similar version is to application in securing the spherical tank to
shock waves as a result of explosions.
The vibration Voting shall be by means of Finite-Element calculations for different degrees of
filling in such a way that stresses occur at most 85 % oft he yield strength in the tank shell
occur and sufficient stability garanteed.

The prerequisite is a sufficient resistant shell Positioning the considerable horizontal forces.
Fig.8 shows the damage line these spherical tank at once Vote on T1=0.2 s and once at vote
TL = l- to see,particularly in the vicinity of an explosion is mainly determined by that vote,
the safety margin reduced.

For depth consultation is appropriate a security barrier,such as the patented TECNI
SYSTEMS-SAL Schicht ( Shock Absorbing Layer ) installed in Fondamenent base.

This so-called static procedures,however,the facts not adequately represent realistic.

Recent calculation methods are thereforeof the dynamic analsis of the constuction value of
deformations.

The use of modern compiuter programs allowed using the Finite Element method,the
treatment also extensive matrix equations,which for the multimass system.
Support structures with the surface storage after TECNI SYSTEMS. ln some large companies
now this problem valued so high that even existing spherical tank with individual supports
this new System have been rebuilt.

Fig.7 shows example the conversion of a tank farm,led by a new Situation as to the
influences from the sub-camp-costruction.

Although the least likely,however,the largest Consequences has certainly been the case of an
explosion of outflowing gas.ln the design against these extreme case, one uses very large
data and documents wihch,in particular from the military science.

There Figure.6a shows the basic pressure profil in a shock wave after an explosion.The
maximum presssure P so planted in the so-called Mach wave at supersonic speed
away.When Hitting an obstacle enters a reflected pressure on, the more times the size of the
pressure in the wavefront achieved.

The Fig.6 b shows the resulting on the spherical surface integrated pressure over time or
momentum over time.With respect to the Response of a spherical tank on the pressure
wave,the dynamic vibration characteristics of the construction and in particular the period of
the lowest natural frequency.

Figure 9 Example of a Reponse-Spectrum-Design curve based on an initial acceleration of
200 gal for different damping values.

ln contrast, must be assumed for spherical tank believes that the integrity is maintained in
full. The design is thus a very certain shafts stress analysis as well as the strict observation of
other processes which occur frequently in connection

Figure :9 Response Spektrum example of a curve-based g. to as the basis for the calculations in earthquake

zones.

As set out separately,is the elastic behavior of plastic storage layer fundamental importance
.Even at low temperatures, the elastic properties may not be subjected to strong adverse
schanges. For this reason,especially a cold test was conducted up to -50" C at the Technical
University of Munich was completed with satisfactory results.

ln addition to the many benefits that can be observed in the storage area described
here,there i salso a vulnerability that requires area described here,there i salso a
vulnerability taht requires special attention.

The storage area in the Southern region of the Spherical tank after completion of assembly
as an adhesive compound which is not easily solved can be obscured and not.

Added corrosion monitor and maintain.ln order not to endanger the safety had to be applied
with care and good long-resistant epoxy coating of existing corrosion protection.

ln the static calculation of the first surface supported spherical tank is investigated and then
the two-part block foundation.

While the foundation of calculation can be regarded as routine work is the treatment of the
so-mounted sphericaltank,at least for civil engineer unusualtask dar.

Wit sub-insuance in the partial load weight,Wind,snow,and internal pressure (or vacuum )
were in turn the main load cases to investigate :

Operating charge in the normal position.

Sample filling {water L,3 x operating pressure }.

Operating charge of 5% per cent base-skew.

The subsequent conversion of the spherical tank storage area previously required an in size
down the bearing surface with which a useful stress analysis can be facilitated in accordance
with the existing spherical tank nor wall thickness.

The size of the storage space is at LPG spherical tank largely determined by the specific
weight of the filling and the surface angle set, the objects found in the treated level was 26-
38 (see Figure 3 ).

The spherical tank shell stress determined in Meridian and ring direction oft he shells
theory,in the narrow area of the supporting edge values archieved by interference effects
from storage to their size.

Sphericaltanks with a flat storage after B.3.S. System.

We present the surface of Spherical storage tanks at the example of the flexible foundation
on aa monolithic concrete base after 8.3.S. System (Fig.1 ).

The statements are intended to show that this storage area in the field of gas and gas
storage Flüssig offers more security and thisis especially for the emergence of the critical
damage fällen extrreme operating conditions.

Tecni Systems B3S $ufface-Support-System extreme operating conditions spherical tanks are used for storing large quantities of gas at high perssure and liquid gases in steam pressure.