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List the safety qualities of spherical tanks built with earthquake-proof system IST central base.

1 - Subsidence of the uneven ground.
2 - Cyclic stress.
3 - Working in cold temperatures.
4 - The impact of the fire.
5 - The influence of earthquakes.
6 - shock wave caused by an explosion.
7 - Problem sloshing, high flexibility to the movement.
8 - Functions of the monolithic support of the spherical tank.
9 - Length of life of the ball.
10 - Highly elastic and strength that transmits the layer spherical bearing of the base.
11 - Unaffected by ground subsidence.
12 - Hermetically isolated spherical bearing.
13 - No problems with the structural strength to the spherical tank.



Sphere support columns ( Horton System ),for instability of the ground in region, it was decided to bring all areas of LNG safely with earthquake-proof system to avoid the upheaval oft he Spheres, with the consequence of a catastrophic chain.



Tecni Systeme Institute T.S.I. Seismic Spherical Tanks B.3.S. S.A.L (Shock Absorbing Layer)





Storage tank for a ball and method of making same

The storage tank for a ball of gases or liquids has a support structure,which combined an elastic in a vertical direction load receiving layer of a security layer for receiving the horizontal forces and a rigid intermediate load-cellu- Lar recording layer points from individual elements formed on a backing.
The individual elements are connected together by flexible connecting brac- Kets. The individual elements are fixed in a position in which they define an Overall curvature of the bearing surface of the ball container corresponding Area. The storage is earthquake-safe and explosion caused by absorbed Shock Waves.Spherical tanks with a flat storage system according to the B 3 S.

  1. Uneven soil subsidence.
  2. Cyclic stress.
  3. Operating at low temperatures.
  4. Fire impact.
  5. The influence of earthquakes or example as influences from the base Construction.

Uneven soil subsidence

The support of a container for several individual nozzele is statically indeter- minate and therefore sensitive to the settling differences and inclination.
Because of the low elastic deformation of the support frame in the vertical direction result,positing differences of 5-10 mm already extensive discharge of the affected arm.

Measurements from tension on vessels with simulated setting differences is Known that the deformations in the adjacent column connections dispropor-Tionately increase and completely discharge a restraint on the four-to fire Times the amount of the initial value increases the contrast is flat.
Storage at execution of a central foundationconcrete base insensitive against subsidence,differential settlement and tilting.

Differential settlement enjoy only the concrete base, but not the shell itself, the diameter the concrete base will be adapted as permessible surface pressure oft he subsoil dimensioned.

Because of the insensitivity setting may also at relatively low boulding the foundation Economical area,but are then executed with a correspondingly large area.

For example,tanks have been in nonconsolidated,silty soil with 0,6 KP/cm2 Allowable pressure with shallow foundations created.

To load distribution on the necessary large surface was founded here the so-called TECNI SYSTEME .

Pressures hell used,the minimun reinforcement ratioof only a very economical anbietet.
Der substrate solutionwas already during the execution, as well as Water filling pressure to consolidate sample,while the originally-existing ferent shear strength in the undrained test of 1.6 N/cm2 increased to 2.2 N/ cm2.recommended only for building with extensive organic inclusions are here too the pile foundation,the piles directly connected tot he cocrete base.

Cyclical Duty

Spherical tanks are often used as a gas storage to cover the daily peak in gas supply.Each day more operationally conditioned pressure fluctuations on which lie in the magnitude 20-100% of maximum operating pressure.

The summation of these pressure fluctuations over the life oft he container is depending on mode spil load times,corresponding to 5.000-20.000 full load change.

Both great try and practical experience Show that even at these cycles in addition to the static and the dynamic stress must be considered.
The time and durability of the containers then hang in a special degree of care in execution and particularly the avoidance of discontinuities,impurity and scores on Building from shows in spil as the fadigue strength diagram for STE 70 and in particular the influence of structural fillet welds on the decrease oft he fatigue strength.

Try to full-scale showed that the number of cycles in the area oft he eight-time strength can be increased up to tenfold.

Through connections :prevention of local spikes and fillet weld ,Grinding all the seams, 100% non-destructive testing, implementation of a water with a pressure test, compared tot he operating pressure by 40% elevated test pressure.

By installing special,forged fittings on the supports and Manholes will be carried out after the ball container B 3 S of TECNI  SYSTEME for cyclic operation even without any filled weld connetion.

Operating at low temperature Safety Methods

In determining the lowest permissible operating temperature and even the related selection of rationalizing structural steel is to be noted that the low temperatures may cause local and operationally due to fall still substantially below the ambient temperatures.

Today in the Spherical container construction widely used fine –grain structural steels have good Toughness properties even at low operating temperatures up to about  -40° C.

The will for the monitoring of fracture properties using techniques by testing methods of fracture mechanics or large plates try supplements .

These newer testing methods assume that the structure defined steel body and discontinuities are present.
Their behavior under load is a function oft he quality of the steel temperature,the plate thickness,the stress state and the loading rate studied and simulated.

In ordert o determine critical temperatures below which,when subjected to a crack propagation is expected.
Highly stressed fillet weld connections,sharp local discontinuities and stress, especially in multiaxial stress states,have an increase in the critical cal temperatures and thus the pröd fracture risk  to follow.

Provisions which are ,for example based on Well’s Wide Plate Test developed,can while avoiding the defects mentioned a low operating temperature at  15° C. under otherwise identical conditions to.

Fire impact

Fires storage areas are usually the result of inevitable leaks in valves Pumping and loading facilities.

To avoid them are numerous safety devices and provided a comprehensive operational and administrative supervision.

Major accidents by fire a monitoring we are therefore extremely rare and usually associated with external influences such as for example with a large earthquake or negligence.

You can, however, catastrophic consequences for neighboring plants have.

The integrity oft he container is primarily through two types of accident.
Risk :By Brander warming in the lower container part(frying pan effect)the vapor pressure in the container until the opening pressure of safety valves and thus to escape further large quantities of gas increase.

2- by heat treatment of the tangential supports these locally to lose viability,as the collapse of the tank structure by lateral tilting of the sequence can have.

Both effects are excluded in the described flat storage.

The influence of earthquakes

Most earthquake codes are based on the specification of a seismic Coefficients. The earthquake force F is then the product of the seismic coefficient K and in inertia W.   
F= K - W where in the seismic cefficient

For example,by the factors oft he geographical distribution oft he reponse behavior of the influence of the damping and the influence of Substrate is presented.

Newer methods start from the stochastic distribution of the excitation and the response spectra corresponding to end,and also on the  determination of the transient Structural deformations at a given earthquake (for example,the NS-EI-Centro earhtquake of 1940 )from.

This dynamic analysis suggests a realistic picture of the interaction of structure,foundation and underground.

In contrast to earthquake structural calculation of buildings which structural damage deliberately take into account, must be provided in high-pressure gas storage,the integrity of the container is retained in full.

Part of this earthquake  observation are therefore the above-described deformation and greater safety in building the fire.

When considered here are planar storage tank and foundation a tightly coupled unit with a favorable stiffness and mass distribution.

The eigenvalues oft he building itself are in the high frequency range.

The support for the B-3-S-of TECNI SYSTEME thus provides favorable conditions for both the high and in some cases for the purposeful deep vote of the structure.

The first natural frequency in vertical direction,for example,lie at full tank at about 20 Hz and increase with empty containers at up to 40 Hz.

Response spectra of evauated eathquake vibration encountered by that area small amplitude values,the vibrational energy is,however,mainly in inner Forces moments and deformations implemented.

By sharing monolithic foundation into an upper and a lower base is the possibility of low vote in horisontal and vertical direction by the incorporation of so-called vibration dampers.

With their help, the first natural frequency can be moved in both directions until about  1 Hz.

The seismic energy of the elastic forces is thus in the building in displacement energy determined by spring index, travel and deformation energy of the internal forces transformed.

The vibrational analysis shows that in favorable vote, only about 10% of the energy in the internal forces and deformations are implemented and the by means of a transient calculation maximum stresses determined by 70% will be reduced which in normal condition for this type of coordination in earthquake zones, in view oft he relatively large amplitude values in the range of „White Noise“ a sufficient attenuation in excess of 3% of the critical level should.



Spherical Storage Tanks for Industrial Gases

Functional support system

The TECNI SYSTEME is system low-position support is dimensioned to produce ideal stress distribution at maximum pressure and load.

Longer service leif

Local peak stresses shorten service life,especially under cyclic operation conditions. The precise embedding in the plastic shell  afforded  by  the TECNI SYSTEME Sytem low-position support demonstrably ensures the formation of  the ideal membrane stress at every filling level .The  measurements  taken  on  mode l and  full-scale vessel  confirm  that the transition zone of  the  plastic  composite  shell  behaves  even more  favorably  than  the computations  had  led  to expect.

Pressure test water filling

The pressure test with water filling and sharply increased  test  pressure, means: reduction  of  residual  stresses  with low foundation  costs.

Highly elastic and force-transmitting as a result of plastic bed layer

The spherical  shell  is  connected  to  the  foundation  by  a highly  effective plastic  layer, which  ensures  the  transmission  of  shearing  forces. At the same time,this  intermediate  layer  affords  unhindered  deformation  in  the  shell contour.

Unaffected by ground subsidence

The TECNI SYSTEME  system using  a low-position  support  is ‚‘‘statically determinate‘‘ and, the Therefore, unaffected  by ground  subsidence. A  high  degree  of  safety  against  earthquakes  is  afforded  by  the  flexible,force-trasmtting  union  with  the  foundation.

Hermetically insulating composite contruction

The  TECNI SYSTEME,system  of  construction  is ideal  from  the  standpoint  of corrosion  protection  in urban  and  industrial  areas.  The  bearing  surface  is  hermetically  sealed, providing.

Absolute  protection  against  atomospheric  and  electrolytic  corrosion.  The  design  features  both  a  minimum  space  requirement  and  a  maximum  of  freely, accessible,surface.

High-grade  materials, specially  developed  welding  techniques  and  modern  nondestructive  testing  methods  make  possible the contruction  of  large  spherical  vessels  for  very  high  service  pressures for town  gas  and  liquified  petroleum  gases.




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